He was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists: Erasmus Darwin on his father's side, and Josiah Wedgwood on his mother's side. Painting of seven-year-old Charles Darwin in Both families were largely Unitarianthough the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism.
Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinkerhad baby Charles baptised in November in the Anglican St Chad's Church, Shrewsburybut Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother. The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in That July, his mother died.
From Septemberhe joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies.
He learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstonea freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest. One day, Grant praised Lamarck 's evolutionary ideas.
Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had recently read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museumone of the largest museums in Europe at the time.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Triposhe joined the ordinary degree course in January His cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting; Darwin pursued this zealously, getting some of his finds published in James Francis Stephens ' Illustrations of British entomology.
He became a close friend and follower of botany professor John Stevens Henslow and met other leading parson-naturalists who saw scientific work as religious natural theologybecoming known to these dons as "the man who walks with Henslow".
When his own exams drew near, Darwin applied himself to his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of William Paley 's Evidences of Christianity  In his final examination in January Darwin did well, coming tenth out of candidates for the ordinary degree. He studied Paley's Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity first published inwhich made an argument for divine design in natureexplaining adaptation as God acting through laws of nature.
Inspired with "a burning zeal" to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics. In preparation, he joined Adam Sedgwick 's geology course, then on 4 August travelled with him to spend a fortnight mapping strata in Wales.
The ship was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. As FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while HMS Beagle surveyed and charted coasts.
Most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with plankton collected in a calm spell. FitzRoy had given him the first volume of Charles Lyell 's Principles of Geology, which set out uniformitarian concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods, [II] and Darwin saw things Lyell's way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology.
He identified the little-known Megatherium by a tooth and its association with bony armour, which had at first seemed to him to be like a giant version of the armour on local armadillos.
The finds brought great interest when they reached England. He read Lyell's second volume and accepted its view of "centres of creation" of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyell's ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species.
Three Fuegians on board had been seized during the first Beagle voyagethen during a year in England were educated as missionaries. Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet at Tierra del Fuego he met "miserable, degraded savages", as different as wild from domesticated animals.
Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals.
The Fuegian they had named Jemmy Button lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England. High in the Andes he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach.
He theorised that as the land rose, oceanic islands sank, and coral reefs round them grew to form atolls. He heard that slight variations in the shape of tortoise shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food.
Inception of Darwin's theory While still a young man, Charles Darwin joined the scientific elite. When the ship reached Falmouth, Cornwallon 2 OctoberDarwin was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December Henslow had fostered his former pupil's reputation by giving selected naturalists a pamphlet of Darwin's geological letters.There is no doubt about the magnitude of Charles Darwin's contributions to science.
There has, however, been a long-running debate about how brilliant he was. His kind of intelligence was clearly different from that of the great physicists who are deemed geniuses.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. charles Darwin’ paradigm shift the next generation, not necessarily the biggest or strongest individual. By the time of Darwin’s death in , most scientists of the world had accepted the concept of common descent, but some were still skeptical of natural selection as a creative mechanism (Bowler ).
The public was less accepting (Fig. 2). Charles Darwin was an English geologist, scientist, naturalist who created the theory of evolution and worked on the principles of natural selection.
To crown it all, these ideas contributed greatly to the world science as the whole and the world development. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist whose revolutionary theory laid the foundation for both the modern theory of evolution and the principle of common descent by .
Charles Darwin is the most famous evolution scientist and often gets credit for coming up with the Theory of Evolution through Natural Selection.
Biography: Charles Robert Darwin was born February 12, , in Shrewsbury, Shropshire England to .