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Life timeline and Nature timeline Late Upper Paleolithic Model or "Revolution"[ edit ] The Late Upper Paleolithic Model, or Upper Paleolithic Revolution, refers to the idea that, though anatomically modern humans first appear aroundyears ago, they were not cognitively or behaviorally "modern" until around 50, years ago, leading to their expansion into Europe and Asia.
Klein specifically describes evidence of fishing, bone shaped as a tool, hearths, significant artifact diversity, and elaborate graves are all absent before this point. Brooksprimarily working in African archaeology, point to the gradual accumulation of "modern" behaviors, starting well before the 50, year benchmark of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution models.
Some authors have pushed back the appearance of fully modern behavior to around 80, years ago in order to incorporate the South African data. These researchers   describe how anatomically modern humans could have been cognitively A critique of the behavioural theories same and what we define as behavioral modernity is just the result of thousands of years of cultural adaptation and learning.
D'Errico and others have looked at Neanderthal culture rather than early human behavior for clues into behavioral modernity. They argue that the original "human revolution" theory reflects a profound Eurocentric bias.
Recent archaeological evidence, they argue, proves that humans evolving in Africa someor evenyears ago were already becoming cognitively and behaviourally "modern". These features include blade and microlithic technology, bone tools, increased geographic range, specialized hunting, the use of aquatic resources, long distance trade, systematic processing and use of pigment, and art and decoration.
These items do not occur suddenly together as predicted by the "human revolution" model, but at sites that are widely separated in space and time. This suggests a gradual assembling of the package of modern human behaviours in Africa, and its later export to other regions of the Old World.
Between these extremes is the view — currently supported by archaeologists Chris Henshilwood,  Curtis Marean,  Ian Watts  and others — that there was indeed some kind of 'human revolution' but that it occurred in Africa and spanned tens of thousands of years.
The term "revolution" in this context would mean not a sudden mutation but a historical development along the lines of "the industrial revolution" or "the Neolithic revolution".
These archaeologists point in particular to the relatively explosive emergence of ochre crayons and shell necklaces apparently used for cosmetic purposes.
These archaeologists see symbolic organisation of human social life as the key transition in modern human evolution.
Recently discovered at sites such as Blombos Cave and Pinnacle Point, South Africa, pierced shells, pigments and other striking signs of personal ornamentation have been dated within a time-window of 70,—, years ago in the African Middle Stone Age, suggesting that the emergence of Homo sapiens coincided, after all, with the transition to modern cognition and behaviour.
Cultural evolutionary models may also shed light on why although evidence of behavioral modernity exists before 50, years ago it is not expressed consistently until that point. With small population sizes, human groups would have been affected by demographic and cultural evolutionary forces that may not have allowed for complex cultural traits.
It is worth noting that some genetic evidence supports a dramatic increase in population size before human migration out of Africa. This is based on a literary analysis of Bronze Age texts which claims to show the first appearances of the concept of self around this time, replacing the voices of gods as the primary form of recorded human cognition.
This non-mainstream theory is not widely accepted but does receive serious academic interest from time to time. Africa[ edit ] Before the Out of Africa theory was generally accepted, there was no consensus on where the human species evolved and, consequently, where modern human behavior arose.
Now, however, African archaeology has become extremely important in discovering the origins of humanity. Since human expansion into Europe around 48, years ago is generally accepted as already "modern",  the question becomes whether behavioral modernity appeared in Africa well before 50, years ago, as a late Upper Paleolithic "revolution" which prompted migration out of Africa, or arose outside Africa and diffused back.
A variety of evidence of abstract imagery, widened subsistence strategies, and other "modern" behaviors have been discovered in Africa, especially South and North Africa.Cognitive-Behavioral Theories and Therapy CONCEPTUALIZATION OF COGNITION(S) Upon reading the cognitive-behavior literature, it becomes apparent that cognition is defined both as a process and the object of that same process.
Home | Index | Blog | No Autistics Allowed: Autism Society Canada Speaks For Itself. THE MISBEHAVIOUR OF BEHAVIOURISTS Ethical Challenges to the Autism-ABA Industry. by Michelle Dawson. Since the publication of O. Ivar Lovaas' landmark study, scientific and legal attention has been lavished on Applied Behaviour Analysis as an autism treatment.
Dr Lovaas' supporters and . Miscellaneous Sites. ACT Research Home Page- The ACT group is led by John Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University and is concerned with the ACT theory and architecture of tranceformingnlp.com goal of this research is to understand how people acquire and organize knowledge and produce intelligent behavior.
Behavioral theories of leadership are classified as such because they focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of his or her leadership success.
Over the past four decades, advances in the behavioral sciences have revealed how human behavior and decision-making is boundedly rational[i], systematically biased, and strongly habitual owing to the interplay of psychological forces with what ought to be, from the perspective of rationality.
Theories about mentoring  Origins . There is a consensus that the action-reflection model has been the most influential mentoring model in Norway. The model has been developing since the s with Handal and Lauvås (, ) as originators.