Type in the number, hit Xy, type in 0. They were not trying to figure out which stars could host a human habitable planet. They were trying to figure out which stars could host a planet that was not so hideously uninhabitable that no possible form of life could live there. In other words, many of these planets could host alien life forms but would quickly kill an unprotected human being.
The session at which I was to speak was scheduled to last no more than 45 minutes and included 2 other South Africans speakers. This meant my contribution to the event would - at best - extend for no more than 15 minutes. And for that they were prepared to fly me Business Class from Johannesburg to California and put me up in a luxury suite that could have accommodated the Royal Family.
Our panel discussion was planned to take place on the morning of the second day, in between a presentation on Mongolia by a representative of the International Finance Corporation and a talk by former US Defense Secretary and CIA director Robert Gates. The night before, though, the oranisers had arranged a Mexican-style feast in the enchanting gardens of a year-old Franciscan mission station, San Juan Capistrano at which comedian and former CNN talk show host Larry King was the guest speaker.
The one thing mining-types do not need is the encouragement to have a good time, and when we took the stage at 09h00 the next morning the only people present in the hall were a handful of sound engineers, cameramen and waiters.
Some advantages of bureaucracies are that they promote equal treatment of everyone and protect citizen interests. Some disadvantages of bureaucracy is that they are rule driven and not democratic. Ironically, the pros and the cons of bureaucracies are similar in nature. Bureaucracies are loathed. CongressLink provides the key disadvantages of representative democracy as negative public opinion of the character and intentions of politicians combined with overwhelming cynicism that elected officials represent the true interests of people. Matrix management is a technique of managing an organization (or, more commonly, part of an organization) through a series of dual-reporting relationships instead of a more traditional linear management structure. In contrast to most other organizational structures, which arrange managers and.
A few delegates wanting to listen to Robert Gates straggled in towards the end of our address, bleary-eyed and seeking medicinal mugs of coffee to neutralise the effects of a savoury carne asada washed down with copious amounts of wine from the Temecula Valley.
Walking aimlessly on the terrace outside the venue hall on first morning of the gathering, two gentlemen beckoned me to join their breakfast table. So what do you do? The mention of the South American country immediately invoked images of paramilitary convoys, Advantages of representative bureaucracy by open jeeps carrying nasty-looking drug-lords, dressed in combat fatigues and fashionable shades, barking orders at quivering farm hands.
But I was soon to learn that my impression was a caricature of the past and that my breakfast guest was the man largely responsible for transforming Colombia from a country torn apart by armed conflict into a secure and stable nation with attractive investment opportunities.
Colombia is the third largest Spanish-speaking country in the world, after Mexico and Spain, with a population of 46m people. In terms of economic output it is probably on a par with South Africa.
In his key-note address, the former leader confessed that ever since the nation declared independence from Spain in its liberty had been undermined by murders, massacres, terrorist attacks and civil strife.
Up until the time he took office he could not recall a single year of his life that was free of violence and unrest, perpetrated mostly by either pro-Marxist groups on the left or paramilitary troops, with close links to narcotic traders, on the right.
His father was killed in a kidnapping attempt in and he, personally, had experienced the cruelty of terrorism. Unacceptably high levels of crime and corruption were destroying hope in Colombia, scaring investors, raising unemployment and driving out skills.
The country was on the path of becoming a failed state. Colombia in seemed strikingly familiar to South Africa; a nation low on confidence, divided by political discord and frustrated by a lack of investment, jobs, talent and rule. What enthralled me, though, was how Uribe and his administration, working tirelessly and courageously, with astounding success, confronted the guerrillas, dismantled the paramilitaries and fought corruption.
Their agenda was clear-cut. The hearings were open and publicly televised, often continuing for hours. His biggest challenge was to enforce law and order and demonstrate military superiority, principally against the guerrillas and drug traffickers, without creating the notion that he was applying the pressure of a strong-arm dictator.
His policies were far-reaching but included reducing human rights violations, increasing judicial action against crimes with a high social impact and restoring a visible police presence at all municipalities and at important traffic junctures.
By engaging the civilian population more actively, gaining the support of the military and increasing intelligence efforts, government reinstated control over national roads, dismantled paramilitary structures, extradited more than criminals, hacked the cultivation of illicit crops, cut the crime rate in half and virtually eliminated kidnappings.
The president was not only victorious against crime. He told the audience that the greater the number of bureaucrats, the poorer the country. He restructured over government departments, decreasing payrolls and improving efficiencies, along the way slashing the number of official motor vehicles by a third.
As crime levels diminished his attention turned to reforming the economy. He secured loans from the IMF and World Bank on assurances that he would eliminate excessive government expenditure, open access to markets and introduce sound macroeconomic policies.
He provided tax incentives to investors and encouraged private participation in a number of important development projects, providing certainty by pledging not to alter any terms in the future. On his triumphant journey, 17 attempts were made on his life, cities were bombed and senators, judges and other officials were murdered persevering change.
But his efforts did not escape the rest of the world. Since our breakfast chat Uribe has re-entered politics and was elected a senator in the parliamentary elections, and despite tensions between him and his successor, Juan Manuel Santos, his popularity among Colombians remains high.
Colombia, like other resource producing nations, has felt the pinch of falling oil and coal prices, and the challenges of completely removing the reactionary forces within the country persist.
Confidence is the cornerstone of a successful nation.Business Interruption (BI) insurance. Can be hugely important. Basically, it is the amount paid to the insured, usually based on the gross profit that a business would earn if trading normally, in the event of a disaster, even if it has to wait for reconstruction.
Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational tranceformingnlp.comzations are defined as social units of people that are structured and managed to meet a need, or to pursue collective goals.
Theories of organizations include rational system perspective, division of labour, bureaucratic theory, and contingency theory. In a rational organization system, there are two significant. A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources.
REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. by John Stuart Mill. PREFACE. THOSE who have done me the honour of reading my previous writings will probably receive no strong impression of novelty from the present volume; for the principles are those to which I have been working up during the greater part of my life, and most of the practical suggestions have been anticipated by others or by myself.
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