Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem. The legislative history of federal crack sentencing laws, for example, provides reason "to suspect that regardless of the objectives Congress was pursuing, it would have shown more restraint in fashioning the crack penalties or more interest in amending them in ensuing years, if the penalties did not apply almost exclusively to blacks. Politicians have been able to reap the electoral rewards of endorsing harsh drug policies because the group that suffered most from those policies-black Americans-lacked the numbers to use the political process to secure a different strategy.
Definitions[ edit ] In social science, racial inequality is typically analyzed as "imbalances in the distribution of power, economic resources, and opportunities. There are many causes, including years of home ownership, household income, unemployment, and education, but inheritance might be the most important.
Race and health in the United States Racial wealth gap[ edit ] A study by the Brandeis University Institute on Assets and Social Policy which followed the same sets of families for 25 years found that there are vast differences in wealth across racial groups in the United States.
Wealth can be defined as "the total value of things families own minus their debts.
Family inheritance, which is passed down from generation to generation, helps with wealth accumulation. Lusardi states that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to face means-tested programs that discourage asset possession due to higher poverty rates.
Lower financial literacy is correlated with poor savings and adjustment behavior. Education is a strong predictor for wealth. Bowles and Gintis conclude from this information that successful African Americans do not transfer the factors for their success as effectively as White Americans do.
The Pew Research Center found that plummeting house values were the main cause of the wealth change from to Hispanics were hit the hardest by the housing market meltdown possibly because a disproportionate share of Hispanics live in California, Florida, Nevada, and Arizona, which are among the states with the steepest declines in housing values.
At the same time, southern Blacks were trapped in debt and denied banking services while White citizens were given low interest loans to set up farms in the Midwest and Western United States. White homesteaders were able to go West and obtain unclaimed land through government grants, while the land grants and rights of African Americans were rarely enforced.
However, it failed inpartially because of suspicious high-risk loans to White banks and the Panic of This lowered the support African Americans had to open businesses and acquire wealth. In addition, after the bank failed, taking the assets of many African Americans with it, many African Americans did not trust banks.
There was also the threat of lynching to any African American who achieved success. Consequently, the savings of retired or disabled African Americans was spent during old age instead of handed down and households had to support poor elderly family members.
In addition, the Survey of Consumer Finances SCF reported that the mean and median values of those money transfers were significantly higher for White American households: The large differences in wealth in the parent-generations were a dominant factor in prediction the differences between African American and White American prospective inheritances.
Non-inherited wealth was more equally distributed than inherited wealth. African Americans were 7. These negative effects are worse for the poor and African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to be poor and have large families.
More children also decrease the amount of gifts parents can give and the inheritance they leave behind for the children. There are studies that indicate that elderly Hispanic parents of all backgrounds live with their adult children due to poverty and would choose to do otherwise, even if they had the resources to do so.
African American and Latino families are less likely to financially aid adult children than non-Hispanic White families.A Note and a disclaimer. The Note: This great book should really be read by tranceformingnlp.com is difficult to describe why it so great because it both teaches and inspires.
You really just have to read it. The United States of America is a North American nation that is the world’s most dominant economic and military power. Likewise, its cultural imprint spans the world, led in large part by its.
Aug 23, · Fewer than one in three black Americans and not even half of whites say the United States has made “a lot” of progress toward achieving racial equality in the half-century since the Rev.
Dr. We the People Petitions; Contact the White House; Citizens Medal; FACT SHEET: Promoting Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment landmark event that brought together thousands of representatives from governments and civil society to advance gender equality, the United States government is committed to continuing to advance .
Mapping Transgender Equality in the United States. To help make sense of the current policy landscape in the states, this report looks at legal equality for transgender people across the country.
The freedom of religion, as well as nondiscrimination, is a significant rights issue, and it is important that governments do not unnecessarily burden the exercise of religious conscience.