To produce the enzymes which catalyse the reaction Low O2 concentration The reaction is anaerobic does not involve oxygen. If too much oxygen is present the glucose will be converted to carbon dioxide and water instead.
Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the potential requirement of named electrochemical processes using tables of standard potentials and half-equations. Nuclear chemistry provides a range of materials.
Distinguish between stable and radioactive isotopes and describe the conditions under which a nucleus is unstable.
A stable isotope does not change.
The stability of a nucleus is determined by proton: The stable ratio of proton to neutron is 1: An unstable nucleus will decay to a more stable form by: Beta-decay if there is a surplus of neutrons turn neutron into proton and electron and release the electron Release of positions if there is a surplus of protons Alpha-decay for a surplus of mass release of two protons and two neutrons which is Hsc chemistry production of materials helium nucleus Describe how transuranic elements are produced.
Transuranic elements are elements of atomic number 93 and above. They are not naturally occurring, and can be synthesised with: A cyclotron a particle accelerator — atoms are bombarded with a charged particle to render them neutron-deficient small charged atomic particles are accelerated to very high speeds using electrical attraction and repulsion to hit a target of large atoms elements with atomic numbers 96 and above are produced this way Examples: Describe how commercial radioisotopes are produced.
Technetiumm has many medical applications in imaging the brain, thyroid, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, gall bladder, skeleton, blood pool, bone marrow, salivary and lachrymal glands and heart blood pool. Molybdenum is produced in a nuclear reactor, which undergoes beta-decay to form technetiumm.
Molybdenum is adsorbed onto alumina and packaged into small glass tubes for distribution to hospitals, where it continuously decays into technetiumm.
To extract the technetiumm, saline solution is passed through the alumina. Iodine is used widely to diagnose thyroid disorders and to detect adrenal dysfunction. Xenon is bombarded with a proton in a cyclotron to produce caesium and two neutrons.
Caesium emits positrons to produce iodine Identify instruments and processes that can be used to detect radiation. Photographic film — darkening of the film detects radioactivity Can measure small amounts Relatively inexpensive Easy to use Dosimeters used by laboratory workers to measure their exposure to radiation involve the use of photographic film.
Cloud chamber — radiation passing through supersaturated vapour of water or alcohol ionises some of the air; the ions formed act as nuclei upon which droplets of liquid condense, making radiation visible.
Alpha particles form straight dense tracks, beta particles form less dense zig-zag tracks while gamma rays generate even fainter tracks.
The withdrawal of a piston expands and cools the air to cause water or alcohol to form droplets on ionised particles. Geiger-Muller counter — Radiation enters thin window at the end of a sealed metal tube containing low pressure argon gas, and ionises this gas.
Electrons and positive ions move to oppositely charged electrodes. The small pulse of electricity produced is amplified and counted by attached electronic circuits. Can detect alpha, beta and gamma radiation Scintillation counter — Certain substances emit light when irradiated by alpha, beta or gamma radiation due the excitement of electrons and their subsequent drop back into ground state.
The light can be collected and amplified in a photomultiplier to generate an electrical signal that operates an electronic counter.
Used for low-energy radiation that is too weak to ionise surrounding atoms Electroscope — radiation ionises the gas around a charged electroscope, allowing the charge to leak off, and the leak is measured Electrostatic charges are indicated by the deflection of a black plastic straw pivoted on a pin.
Identify one use of a named radioisotope: Cobalt is used both industrially and in medicine. It is used for thickness gauging, identifying leaks in pipes, food irradiation and as a radiation source for cancer treatment. It is synthesised in a nuclear reactor by bombarding cobalt with a neutron.
It undergoes beta and gamma decay into nickel It has a half-life of 5. Americium is widely used in smoke detectors. As it decays, it releases alpha particles, which ionise air. The ions are collected by an electrode and the resulting electrical current measured.Production of Materials Revision.
Small amounts of transuranic elements have been synthesised by scientists. Feb 05, · HSC Chemistry Production of Materials video on ethene and crude oil.
Browse and revise past Chemistry HSC questions for Production of Materials (Module ). Lessons by expert teachers that cover the NSW HSC Chemistry Syllabus comprehensively. 59 Practice questions 59 lesson quizzes that include a variety of questions.
As the cultural development of humans continued, they looked for a greater variety of materials to cater for their needs.
The twentieth century saw an explosion in both the use of traditional materials and in the research for development of a wider range of materials to satisfy technological developments. HSC Chemistry Notes – Production of Materials - 1. Fossils fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene, for the production of other substances 1.
construct word and balanced formulae equations .