View next table 1. Hypothesis of the Study In order to guide relevant data collection, analysis and interpretation of data, a hypothesis was formulated for empirical testing.
Bangladesh was expected to suffer the most from the ending of the MFA, as it was expected to face more competition, particularly from China. However, this was not the case.
However, this act was temporarily suspended for Bangladesh by President Obama after the Rana Plaza collapse in Of the millions of wage earning children in Bangladesh inalmost all of them worked in the ready-made garment industry.
This number may have been as high as 15 million children. One study estimated that there wereworkers in the industry. Estimates from the World Bank put the number of female workers in the industry in the s at 50,; that number was brought up to 2. This has given women the chance to be financially independent and have a voice in the family because now they contribute financially.
Most women come from low income families. Low wage of women workers and their compliance have enabled the industry to compete with the world market. Women are paid far less than men mainly due to their lack of education. But, pressure from buyers to abide by labor codes has enabled factories to maintain satisfactory working conditions.
The firsts protests broke out inand since then, there have been periodic protests by the workers. Many textile factories in Bangladesh often compromise worker health and safety because of the tough pressure from the ordering companies to make tight deadlines. Management will often push workers in order to ensure that an order is fulfilled.
This poses a problem as workers have almost no avenues with which to file a complaint. Almost none of the factories have any sort of human resources department and local officials often turn a blind eye to violations. Without any structure like a formalized union, many lack the ability to speak of injustices either from lack of knowledge or fear of losing economic security.
The scenario becomes worse when it comes to women workers. The female workers are exposed to different occupational health hazards such as work environment hazards, physical hazards and mental hazards.
The work environment hazards include long working hours, absence of leave facilities, congested and overcrowded working conditions, absence of health facilities and safety measures, absence of staff amenities, lack of safe drinking water.
On the other hand, the physical hazards include exposures to toxic agents, awkward postures and repetitive motion. Exposure to sexual, verbal and psychological harassment and violence at their work places are the some of the common mental health hazards. These complaints are related to highly repetitive movements, awkward postures in seated positions, repetitive hand and arm movements, prolonged working hours without adequate breaks and poorly designed work stations.
These risk factors result in adverse health outcomes of the workers such as musculoskeletal complaints of neck, back, hands, shoulders and lower limbs. This results in strain on the neck and back, and eventually to pain.
The flattened lumbar spine may cause back fatigue, disc degeneration and back injuries. Sarder and colleagues found that seats in garment factories were devoid of a backrest, which would allow intermittent short breaks for resting the upper body from bending.
Moreover, workers experience excessive hand work that involves gripping and pinching with the arm in constrained postures which causes wrist pain. Sewing machine operators are involve in highly repetitive movements of the elbows and wrists. Minimizing ergonomic risk factors through ergonomic intervention for workers is often neglected in many of the countries.
Thus, there are high rate of musculoskeletal symptoms in different body parts among sewing machine operators which points out for proper interventions.
The workers should be educated about the significance of postures on their health so that they do not neglect the instructions. The following recommendations can be implemented as solutions to reduce burden of musculoskeletal disorders among worker in the garment industries: Even though there are labor laws maintaining occupational health and safety, the overall standards are low due to the laxity of labor laws enforcement, and the owners not taking responsibility for maintaining and optimizing working conditions.
The foremost initiative is the establishment of the policies in the garments factories and monitor them by a committee represented by both employers and employee. Proper storage and handling of heavy materials can play important role to reduce musculoskeletal issues. This intervention can include providing trolleys and wheeled multi-level rack to carry clothes and material picturereducing height difference to move materials manually, eliminating tasks requiring bending or twisting etc.
This will prevent the workers to carry heavy loads manually and reduce back pains or muscle sprain. The adjustable desk height, inclined slope of the table, needle angle and the pedal position should induce a more upright position of the head, neck and trunk.
Adjustment of the sewing machine table alone does not ensure good posture; adjustment of the chair is also an important factor. Studies also show significant reduction of physical discomfort experienced by the sewing machine operators by changing the angle of seat pan and backrest of the chair.Impact of RMG sector in Bangladesh economy Industry Background The industry of RMG is one of the most potential and revenue earning sector of Bangladesh.
The standing of the RMG market is known worldwide. Soon it became one of the major economical strength for Bangladesh.
The RMG sector has added very much in earning foreign exchange.
Economic Development of Bangladesh Economy of Bangladesh Economic Position in World: The economy of Bangladesh is a rapidly developing market-based economy.
Its per capita income in was est. US$1, (adjusted by purchasing power parity). By the (RMG) industry was the only multibillion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in Bangladesh, accounting for 75 per cent of the country's earnings in that year. Bangladesh's export trade is now dominated by the ready-made garments (RMG) industry.
Accumulation by Dispossession ii task for the city in contemporary times. in Chapter Five. depict the nature of transformation of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Drawing from works of Engels. reflect the multiplicity of the economies and the work culture of the global society.
it is also the right to change the city to the needs and desire of. Journals at IDEAS Classified alphabetically by name See also impact factors of journals: simple, recursive, discounted, recursive discounted and tranceformingnlp.com are currently 3, journals covered in tranceformingnlp.com that some journals are not shown here because they are out of topic or miss-classified.
CHAPTER 1 GROWTH OF GDP AND OTHER MACRO AGGREGATES Following the slowdown induced by the global financial crisis in , the Indian economy responded strongly to.