Introduction Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Note that your research problem determines the type of design you should use, not the other way around!
Ex Post Facto Designs Pre-experimental designs are the simplest type of design because they do not include an adequate control group.
A pre- and post-intervention design involves collecting information only on program participants. This information is collected at least twice: However, findings using this design may be enough to indicate your program is making a difference depending on how rigorous the proof needs to be, proximity in time between the implementation of the program and the progress on outcomes, and the systematic elimination of other alternative explanations.
Not an authentic experimental design Design does not control for many extraneous factors Subject to many threats to validity Typically conducted for exploratory purposes Usually convenient and financially feasible The three types of pre-experimental designs are: Pre-experimental Designs Image taken from: A good experimental design can show a casual relationship between participation in your program and key student outcomes.
The key to this design is that all eligible program participants are randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. When random assignment is used, it is assumed that the participants in both the control and treatment groups have similar attributes and characteristics.
The purpose of a true experimental design is to control bias. In a true experiment, differences in the dependent variables can be directly attributable to the changes in independent variable and not other variables.
Characteristics of Experimental Design Research controls manipulation of the intervention or treatment Participants are random assigned to groups Intervention or treatment occurs prior to observation of the dependent variable Strengths Causal relationships between variables can be found Limitations Limited external validity generalizability due to the controlled experimental environment Ethical concerns The image below provides a model of several experimental designs.
Experimental Designs Image taken from: A quasi-experimental design is very similar to an experimental design except it lacks random assignment. Depending on treatment and comparison group equivalency, evidence generated from these designs can be quite strong. To conduct a quasi-experimental design, you will need to identify a suitable comparison group i.
Characteristics of a Comparison Group Members of a comparison group may receive other types of services or no services at all. A comparison group should be similar to the treatment group on key factors that can affect your outcomes. You may have to collect data to try and control for potential differences as part of your statistical analyses.
Strengths Enables experimentation when random assignment is not possible Avoids ethical issues caused by random assignment Limitations Does not control for extraneous variables that may influence findings The image below shows several examples of quasi-experimental designs.
Quasi-Experimental Designs Image taken from: The ability to produce a quality evaluation with such as design is directly related to the quality and quantity of data readily available. The phenomenon of interest has already occurred at the time of observation or measurement.
There is typically no control or comparison group. Main weakness of design: Essentially, your analysis will be limited to the data that is available.
You can investigate research questions that are inappropriate for experimental designs.
These designes are typically more logistically and financially feasible. You can pay more attention to context instead of seeking to control variables and the environment. These designs are particularly effective when Krathwohl,p.Major in Research and Evaluation Methodology Students in the Research and Evaluation Methodology (REM) program learn to design research projects, analyze data, develop assessment instruments, implement program evaluation, and conduct research about the efficacy of research methodologies.
GEOG - NRM – Research Design, Writing, and Presentation Methods Page 4 of 9 STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES UAF is committed to . Evaluation methodology Introduction. It is often tempting to launch straight into an evaluation without taking the time to plan first.
Planning is a crucial part of the process. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
Evaluation Methodology by Marie Baehr, Elmhurst College Design the methods used for the evaluation. (This step is skipped if an already existing evaluation tool is used.) The evaluator alone (or the evaluator with the client): a.
chooses criteria to use for the evaluation based on. Evaluation methodology Introduction. It is often tempting to launch straight into an evaluation without taking the time to plan first.
Planning is a crucial part of the process.